Show all

2015

Journal Articles

36.

Paro, Simona; Imler, Jean-Luc; Meignin, Carine

Sensing viral RNAs by Dicer/RIG-I like ATPases across species Journal Article

Current Opinion in Immunology, 32 , pp. 106–113, 2015, ISSN: 1879-0372.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adenosine Triphosphatases, DEAD-box RNA Helicases, Humans, Protein Binding, Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs, Ribonuclease III, RNA, Viral, Virus Diseases, Viruses

2014

Journal Articles

35.

Majzoub, Karim; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine ; Meignin, Carine ; Goto, Akira ; Marzi, Stefano ; Fedorova, Antonina ; Verdier, Yann ; Vinh, Joëlle ; Hoffmann, Jules A; Martin, Franck ; Baumert, Thomas F; Schuster, Catherine ; Imler, Jean-Luc

RACK1 controls IRES-mediated translation of viruses Journal Article

Cell, 159 (5), pp. 1086–1095, 2014, ISSN: 1097-4172.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Cell Line, Cell Surface, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear, Dicistroviridae, GTP-Binding Proteins, Hepacivirus, Hepatocytes, Humans, Insect Viruses, Models, Molecular, Neoplasm Proteins, Peptide Initiation Factors, Protein Biosynthesis, Receptors, Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid, Tumor, Virus Replication

34.

Tartey, Sarang; Matsushita, Kazufumi ; Vandenbon, Alexis ; Ori, Daisuke ; Imamura, Tomoko ; Mino, Takashi ; Standley, Daron M; Hoffmann, Jules A; Reichhart, Jean-Marc ; Akira, Shizuo ; Takeuchi, Osamu

Akirin2 is critical for inducing inflammatory genes by bridging IκB-ζ and the SWI/SNF complex Journal Article

EMBO J., 33 (20), pp. 2332–2348, 2014, ISSN: 1460-2075.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adaptor Proteins, Cell Nucleus, Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly, chromatin remodeling, Chromosomal Proteins, cytokine, Cytokines, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, gene regulation, Genetic, Humans, Immunity, Innate, innate immunity, Knockout, Listeria monocytogenes, Macrophages, Male, Mice, Multiprotein Complexes, Non-Histone, Nuclear Proteins, Promoter Regions, Protein Binding, Repressor Proteins, Sequence Deletion, Signal Transducing, Transcriptional Activation

33.

Imler, Jean-Luc

Overview of Drosophila immunity: a historical perspective Journal Article

Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 42 (1), pp. 3–15, 2014, ISSN: 1879-0089.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Allergy and Immunology, Animal, Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides, Antimicrobial peptides, History, Humans, IMD pathway, Immunity, Innate, innate immunity, Models, Pattern recognition receptors, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptors

2013

Journal Articles

32.

Fukuyama, Hidehiro; Verdier, Yann; Guan, Yongsheng; Makino-Okamura, Chieko; Shilova, Victoria; Liu, Xi; Maksoud, Elie; Matsubayashi, Jun; Haddad, Iman; Spirohn, Kerstin; Ono, Kenichiro; Hetru, Charles; Rossier, Jean; Ideker, Trey; Boutros, Michael; Vinh, Joëlle; Hoffmann, Jules A

Landscape of protein-protein interactions in Drosophila immune deficiency signaling during bacterial challenge Journal Article

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 110 (26), pp. 10717–10722, 2013, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Amino Acid, Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly, Escherichia coli, functional proteomics, Genes, Genetically Modified, Histone Acetyltransferases, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, IMD interactome, Insect, Models, Molecular, Protein Interaction Maps, Sequence Homology, Signal Transduction, small ubiquitin-like modifier

31.

Kobayashi, Taira; Ogawa, Michinaga; Sanada, Takahito; Mimuro, Hitomi; Kim, Minsoo; Ashida, Hiroshi; Akakura, Reiko; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Kawalec, Magdalena; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Mizushima, Tsunehiro; Sasakawa, Chihiro

The Shigella OspC3 effector inhibits caspase-4, antagonizes inflammatory cell death, and promotes epithelial infection Journal Article

Cell Host Microbe, 13 (5), pp. 570–583, 2013, ISSN: 1934-6069.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animal, Bacillary, Bacterial, Bacterial Proteins, Caspases, Cell Death, Cell Line, Disease Models, DNA, Dysentery, Enzyme Inhibitors, Epithelial Cells, Escherichia coli, Gene Knockout Techniques, Guinea Pigs, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Initiator, Protein Binding, Protein Interaction Mapping, Salmonella typhimurium, Sequence Analysis, Shigella flexneri, Virulence Factors

30.

Ferrandon, Dominique

The complementary facets of epithelial host defenses in the genetic model organism Drosophila melanogaster: from resistance to resilience Journal Article

Curr. Opin. Immunol., 25 (1), pp. 59–70, 2013, ISSN: 1879-0372.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adult Stem Cells, Aging, Animal, Cell Proliferation, Disease Models, Enterocytes, Humans, Immunity, Intestinal Mucosa, Metagenome, Stem Cell Niche, Wound Healing

2012

Journal Articles

29.

Meister, Marie; Ferrandon, Dominique

Immune cell transdifferentiation: a complex crosstalk between circulating immune cells and the haematopoietic niche Journal Article

EMBO Rep., 13 (1), pp. 3–4, 2012, ISSN: 1469-3178.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Cell Communication, Cell Transdifferentiation, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, Humans, Immune System, Signal Transduction, Stem Cell Niche

2011

Journal Articles

28.

Imler, Jean-Luc; Ferrandon, Dominique

[Innate immunity crowned 2011 Nobel Prize winner] Journal Article

Med Sci (Paris), 27 , pp. 1019–24, 2011, ISSN: 0767-0974 (Print) 0767-0974 (Linking).

Links | BibTeX | Tags: *Immunity, *Nobel Prize, Biological, Genetic Association Studies, Humans, Immunotherapy/methods/trends, Innate/genetics, Models, Molecular Targeted Therapy/trends, Seasons, Structure-Activity Relationship, Toll-Like Receptors/chemistry/genetics/isolation & purification/physiology

27.

Boyer, Laurent; Magoc, Lorin; Dejardin, Stephanie; Cappillino, Michael; Paquette, Nicholas; Hinault, Charlotte; Charriere, Guillaume M; Ip, Eddie W K; Fracchia, Shannon; Hennessy, Elizabeth; Erturk-Hasdemir, Deniz; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Silverman, Neal; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Stuart, Lynda M

Pathogen-derived effectors trigger protective immunity via activation of the Rac2 enzyme and the IMD or Rip kinase signaling pathway Journal Article

Immunity, 35 (4), pp. 536–549, 2011, ISSN: 1097-4180.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adaptor Proteins, Enzyme Activation, HEK293 Cells, Humans, rac GTP-Binding Proteins, Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases, Signal Transducing, Signal Transduction

26.

Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Imler, Jean-Luc

Microbial sensing by Toll receptors: a historical perspective Journal Article

Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 31 (8), pp. 1734–1738, 2011, ISSN: 1524-4636.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Cardiovascular Diseases, History, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Macrophages, Toll-Like Receptors

25.

Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Won, Sungyong ; Chtarbanova, Stanislava ; Squiban, Barbara ; Ocorr, Karen ; Bodmer, Rolf ; Beutler, Bruce ; Hoffmann, Jules A; Imler, Jean-Luc

ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP))-dependent regulation of cardiotropic viral infections Journal Article

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108 (29), pp. 12024–12029, 2011, ISSN: 1091-6490.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Heart, HeLa Cells, Humans, Immunity, Immunoblotting, Inbred C57BL, Innate, KATP Channels, Mice, Nodaviridae, Pinacidil, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, RNA Interference, Tolbutamide, Viral Load, Viremia

24.

Limmer, Stefanie; Quintin, Jessica; Hetru, Charles; Ferrandon, Dominique

Virulence on the fly: Drosophila melanogaster as a model genetic organism to decipher host-pathogen interactions Journal Article

Curr Drug Targets, 12 (7), pp. 978–999, 2011, ISSN: 1873-5592.

Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: Animal, Anti-Infective Agents, Disease Models, Drug Delivery Systems, Drug Design, Drug Resistance, Fungi, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Microbial, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

2010

Journal Articles

23.

Silverman, Gary A; Whisstock, James C; Bottomley, Stephen P; Huntington, James A; Kaiserman, Dion; Luke, Cliff J; Pak, Stephen C; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Bird, Phillip I

Serpins flex their muscle: I. Putting the clamps on proteolysis in diverse biological systems Journal Article

J. Biol. Chem., 285 (32), pp. 24299–24305, 2010, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Biological, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cell Death, Cell Differentiation, Cell Survival, Homeostasis, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Mice, Models, Phenotype, Serpins, Transgenes, Transgenic

22.

Whisstock, James C; Silverman, Gary A; Bird, Phillip I; Bottomley, Stephen P; Kaiserman, Dion; Luke, Cliff J; Pak, Stephen C; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Huntington, James A

Serpins flex their muscle: II. Structural insights into target peptidase recognition, polymerization, and transport functions Journal Article

J. Biol. Chem., 285 (32), pp. 24307–24312, 2010, ISSN: 1083-351X.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Biological, Biological Transport, Biophysics, Catalytic Domain, Hormones, Humans, Kinetics, Models, Peptide Hydrolases, Protein Binding, Protein Conformation, Protein Structure, Serpins, Substrate Specificity, Tertiary, Thrombin

21.

Garcia, Alvaro Baeza; Pierce, Raymond J; Gourbal, Benjamin; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Colinet, Dominique; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Dissous, Colette; Coustau, Christine

Involvement of the cytokine MIF in the snail host immune response to the parasite Schistosoma mansoni Journal Article

PLoS Pathog., 6 (9), pp. e1001115, 2010, ISSN: 1553-7374.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Amino Acid, Apoptosis, Biomphalaria, Blotting, Cell Proliferation, Cells, Cricetinae, Cultured, Hemocytes, Host-Parasite Interactions, Humans, Liver, Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors, Messenger, Oocysts, Recombinant Proteins, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, RNA, Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosomiasis mansoni, Sequence Homology, Small Interfering, Western

20.

Pospisilik, Andrew J; Schramek, Daniel; Schnidar, Harald; Cronin, Shane J F; Nehme, Nadine T; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Knauf, Claude; Cani, Patrice D; Aumayr, Karin; Todoric, Jelena; Bayer, Martina; Haschemi, Arvand; Puviindran, Vijitha; Tar, Krisztina; Orthofer, Michael; Neely, Gregory G; Dietzl, Georg; Manoukian, Armen; Funovics, Martin; Prager, Gerhard; Wagner, Oswald; Ferrandon, Dominique; Aberger, Fritz; Hui, Chi-chung; Esterbauer, Harald; Penninger, Josef M

Drosophila genome-wide obesity screen reveals hedgehog as a determinant of brown versus white adipose cell fate Journal Article

Cell, 140 (1), pp. 148–160, 2010, ISSN: 1097-4172.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Adipocytes, Adipogenesis, Brown, Brown/metabolism, Cyclic AMP, Cyclic AMP/metabolism, Drosophila Proteins/*metabolism, Glucocorticoids, Glucocorticoids/metabolism, Hedgehog Proteins, Hedgehog Proteins/*metabolism, Humans, Knockout, Mice, Muscle Cells, Muscle Cells/metabolism, Obesity, Obesity/*genetics, Repressor Proteins, Repressor Proteins/genetics, White, White/metabolism

2008

Journal Articles

19.

Deddouche, Safia; Matt, Nicolas ; Budd, Aidan ; Mueller, Stefanie ; Kemp, Cordula ; Galiana-Arnoux, Delphine ; Dostert, Catherine ; Antoniewski, Christophe ; Hoffmann, Jules A; Imler, Jean-Luc

The DExD/Ħ-box helicase Dicer-2 mediates the induction of antiviral activity in drosophila Journal Article

Nature Immunology, 9 (12), pp. 1425–1432, 2008, ISSN: 1529-2916.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Amino Acid, Electrophoresis, Fat Body, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic, Genetically Modified, Humans, Phylogeny, Polyacrylamide Gel, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Ribonuclease III, RNA Helicases, Sequence Homology, Transcription, Virus Diseases

18.

Goto, Akira; Matsushita, Kazufumi ; Gesellchen, Viola ; Chamy, Laure El ; Kuttenkeuler, David ; Takeuchi, Osamu ; Hoffmann, Jules A; Akira, Shizuo ; Boutros, Michael ; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

Akirins are highly conserved nuclear proteins required for NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in drosophila and mice Journal Article

Nat. Immunol., 9 (1), pp. 97–104, 2008, ISSN: 1529-2916.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Cell Line, Embryo, Fibroblasts, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Interleukin-1beta, Mammalian, Mice, NF-kappa B, Nuclear Proteins, Proteins, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptors, Transgenic, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

17.

Roetzer, Andreas; Gregori, Christa; Jennings, Ann Marie; Quintin, Jessica; Ferrandon, Dominique; Butler, Geraldine; Kuchler, Karl; Ammerer, Gustav; Schüller, Christoph

Candida glabrata environmental stress response involves Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msn2/4 orthologous transcription factors Journal Article

Mol. Microbiol., 69 (3), pp. 603–620, 2008, ISSN: 1365-2958.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Candida glabrata, Candidiasis, DNA-Binding Proteins, Fungal, Fungal Proteins, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic, Humans, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Osmotic Pressure, Regulon, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins, Transcription, Transcription Factors, Virulence, Yeasts

2007

Journal Articles

16.

Beutler, Bruce; Eidenschenk, Celine ; Crozat, Karine ; Imler, Jean-Luc ; Takeuchi, Osamu ; Hoffmann, Jules A; Akira, Shizuo

Genetic analysis of resistance to viral infection Journal Article

Nature Reviews. Immunology, 7 (10), pp. 753–766, 2007, ISSN: 1474-1741.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Antiviral Agents, Disease Susceptibility, Drug Resistance, Eukaryotic Cells, Humans, Immunity, Mutation, Viral, Virus Diseases, Viruses

15.

Ferrandon, Dominique; Gottar, Marie; Gobert, Vanessa

[New mechanism for detection of infections using the innate immune system of animals] Journal Article

Med Sci (Paris), 23 (8-9), pp. 707–709, 2007, ISSN: 0767-0974.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Animal, Drosophila/immunology, Gram-Positive Bacteria, Gram-Positive Bacteria/pathogenicity, Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections, Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/immunology, Humans, Immune System, Infection, Infection/*diagnosis/*immunology, Models

2006

Journal Articles

14.

Galiana-Arnoux, Delphine; Imler, Jean-Luc

Toll-like receptors and innate antiviral immunity Journal Article

Tissue Antigens, 67 (4), pp. 267–276, 2006, ISSN: 0001-2815.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Humans, Immunity, Innate, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptors, Virus Diseases

2005

Journal Articles

13.

Martinelli, Cosimo; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

Evolution and integration of innate immune systems from fruit flies to man: lessons and questions Journal Article

J. Endotoxin Res., 11 (4), pp. 243–248, 2005, ISSN: 0968-0519.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Biological Evolution, Cell Surface, Forecasting, Humans, Immunity, Immunological, Innate, Membrane Glycoproteins, Models, Receptors, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptor 5, Toll-Like Receptors

12.

Weber, Alexander N R; Moncrieffe, Martin C; Gangloff, Monique; Imler, Jean-Luc; Gay, Nicholas J

Ligand-receptor and receptor-receptor interactions act in concert to activate signaling in the Drosophila toll pathway Journal Article

The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280 (24), pp. 22793–22799, 2005, ISSN: 0021-9258.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Amino Acid, Biophysical Phenomena, Biophysics, Body Patterning, Calorimetry, Cell Line, Cell Surface, Cross-Linking Reagents, Cytokines, Dimerization, Electrophoresis, Humans, Ligands, Luciferases, Membrane Glycoproteins, Polyacrylamide Gel, Protein Binding, Protein Structure, Receptors, Recombinant Proteins, Sequence Homology, Signal Transduction, Tertiary, Time Factors, Toll-Like Receptors, Ultracentrifugation

2004

Journal Articles

11.

Imler, Jean-Luc; Zheng, Liangbiao

Biology of Toll receptors: lessons from insects and mammals Journal Article

Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 75 (1), pp. 18–26, 2004, ISSN: 0741-5400.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Anopheles, Cell Surface, Humans, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mice, Phylogeny, Plant Physiological Phenomena, Receptors, Signal Transduction, Toll-Like Receptor 5, Toll-Like Receptors

10.

Blandin, Stephanie A; Shiao, Shin-Hong; Moita, Luis F; Janse, Chris J; Waters, Andrew P; Kafatos, Fotis C; Levashina, Elena A

Complement-like protein TEP1 is a determinant of vectorial capacity in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Journal Article

Cell, 116 (5), pp. 661–670, 2004, ISSN: 0092-8674.

Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: Anopheles, Female, Genetic, Humans, Insect Proteins, Insect Vectors, Malaria, Models, Molecular, Plasmodium berghei, Polymorphism, Protein Structure, RNA, Sequence Alignment, Tertiary

2003

Journal Articles

9.

Reichhart, Jean-Marc

TLR5 takes aim at bacterial propeller Journal Article

Nat. Immunol., 4 (12), pp. 1159–1160, 2003, ISSN: 1529-2908.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Bacterial Physiological Phenomena, Cell Surface, Flagella, Flagellin, Humans, Membrane Glycoproteins, Receptors, Toll-Like Receptor 5, Toll-Like Receptors

8.

Royet, Julien; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

Detection of peptidoglycans by NOD proteins Journal Article

Trends Cell Biol., 13 (12), pp. 610–614, 2003, ISSN: 0962-8924.

Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: Adaptor Proteins, Apoptosis, Carrier Proteins, Gram-Positive Bacteria, Humans, Immunity, Immunologic, Innate, Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein, Oligopeptides, Peptidoglycan, Receptors, Signal Transducing, Signal Transduction

7.

Green, Clare; Brown, Gemma; Dafforn, Timothy R; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Morley, Terri; Lomas, David A; Gubb, David

Drosophila necrotic mutations mirror disease-associated variants of human serpins Journal Article

Development, 130 (7), pp. 1473–1478, 2003, ISSN: 0950-1991.

Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: Humans, Necrosis, Serpins, Temperature, Urea

6.

Imler, Jean-Luc; Hoffmann, Jules A

Toll signaling: the TIReless quest for specificity Journal Article

Nature Immunology, 4 (2), pp. 105–106, 2003, ISSN: 1529-2908.

Links | BibTeX | Tags: Cell Surface, Dendritic Cells, Humans, Immunological, Interferon-beta, Membrane Glycoproteins, Mice, Models, Protein Structure, Receptors, Signal Transduction, Tertiary, Toll-Like Receptors

2001

Journal Articles

5.

Michel, T; Reichhart, Jean-Marc ; Hoffmann, Jules A; Royet, Julien

Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein Journal Article

Nature, 414 (6865), pp. 756–759, 2001, ISSN: 0028-0836.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Amino Acid, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Anti-Infective Agents, Bacillus thuringiensis, Carrier Proteins, Cell Surface, Chromosome Mapping, Enterococcus faecalis, Fungi, Genes, Gram-Positive Bacteria, Hemolymph, Humans, Insect, Insect Proteins, Membrane Glycoproteins, Micrococcus luteus, Mutation, Receptors, Sequence Homology, Toll-Like Receptors

4.

Imler, Jean-Luc; Hoffmann, Jules A

Toll receptors in innate immunity Journal Article

Trends in Cell Biology, 11 (7), pp. 304–311, 2001, ISSN: 0962-8924.

Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: Cell Surface, Humans, Immunity, Immunologic, Innate, Membrane Glycoproteins, Membrane Proteins, Receptors, Toll-Like Receptors

1999

Journal Articles

3.

Hoffmann, Jules A; Kafatos, Fotis C; Janeway, Charles A; Ezekowitz, Alan R B

Phylogenetic perspectives in innate immunity Journal Article

Science, 284 (5418), pp. 1313–1318, 1999, ISSN: 0036-8075.

Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: Active, Culicidae, Humans, Immunity, Immunological, Infection, Innate, Insect Vectors, Mammals, Models, Phagocytosis, Phylogeny, Proteins

1997

Journal Articles

2.

Hoffmann, Jules A

Immune responsiveness in vector insects Journal Article

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 94 (21), pp. 11152–11153, 1997, ISSN: 0027-8424.

BibTeX | Tags: Anopheles, Bacteria, Blood Proteins, Defensins, Humans, Insect Vectors, Life Cycle Stages, Malaria, Mammals, Plasmodium

1990

Journal Articles

1.

Lagueux, Marie; Lwoff, L; Meister, Marie; Goltzené, F; Hoffmann, Jules A

cDNAs from neurosecretory cells of brains of Locusta migratoria (Insecta, Orthoptera) encoding a novel member of the superfamily of insulins Journal Article

Eur. J. Biochem., 187 (1), pp. 249–254, 1990, ISSN: 0014-2956.

Abstract | BibTeX | Tags: Base Sequence, DNA, Genes, Grasshoppers, Humans, Insulin, Multigene Family, Nervous System, Neuropeptides, Neurosecretory Systems, Nucleic Acid, Nucleic Acid Hybridization, Oligonucleotide Probes, RNA, Sequence Homology